The analysis process of the spectral analysis instrument is to introduce a sample of the measured substance into the light source, give external energy, evaporate the sample into gaseous atoms, and excite the outer electrons of the gaseous atoms from a low energy state to a high energy state. Atoms in high energy states are very unstable. When they transition to the ground state or low energy state, radiation is generated.
The so-called spectrum or spectral analysis instrument generally refers to an optical spectrum analysis instrument. From its appearance, it can be divided into line spectrum, band spectrum and continuous spectrum. Line spectra are generated by the excitation of atoms or ions in a gaseous state. If it is generated by atoms, it is called atomic spectrum. If it is generated by ions, it is called ion spectrum. The band spectrum is derived from excited gas molecules. If the carbon electrode used in the spectral analysis can be nitrided with air in high temperature to generate cyanide (CN) molecules, the cyanide molecule will generate a band spectrum when it is excited in the arc, which is called the cyanide band. Metallographic analyzers produce continuous spectra when a liquid or solid substance is excited at high temperatures. Such as common incandescent lamps, red iron electrodes and so on. They both emit continuous spectrometers. These spectra cannot be used for analysis.
According to the nature of electromagnetic radiation, spectra can be divided into atomic spectroscopic instruments and molecular spectroscopic instruments. According to the transmission of radiant energy, the spectrum can be divided into emission, absorption, luminescence, and Lehman spectrum. The spectrum analysis that we are used to here refers to the "atomic emission spectrum analysis". The spectral range of the emission spectrum is about 1600 to 8500.
Because the sample to be analyzed contains different atoms, it will generate radiation with different wavelengths. After the spectrograph is used to split the generated radiation, it will get regular spectral lines arranged in wavelength order on the photosensitive plate. Qualitative analysis is the identification of the existence of spectral lines of various characteristic wavelengths. Quantitative analysis of the spectrum is further measured with a spectroscopic instrument .
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